Thomas Hobbes
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"Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury", in some older texts "Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury",.}} was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan (book) /Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.

Though on rational grounds a champion of Absolute monarchy/absolutism for the sovereign, Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European classical liberalism /liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid.

He was one of the founders of modern political philosophy and political science. His understanding of humans as being matter and motion, obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a "social contract" remains one of the major topics of political philosophy.

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