Idries Shah
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"Idries Shah", also known as "Idris Shah", né "Sayyid/Sayed Idries el-Hashemite/Hashimi" (Arabic: ??? ????? ?????) and by the pen name "Arkon Daraul", was an author and teacher in the Sufism/Sufi tradition who wrote over three dozen books on topics ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies.

Born in India, the descendant of a family of Pashtun people/Afghan nobles, Shah grew up mainly in England. His early writings centred on magic (paranormal)/magic and witchcraft. In 1960 he established a publishing house, Octagon Press, producing translations of Sufi classics as well as titles of his own. His seminal work was The Sufis, which appeared in 1964 and was well received internationally. In 1965, Shah founded the Institute for Cultural Research, a London-based educational charity devoted to the study of human behaviour and culture. A similar organisation, the Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge (ISHK), exists in the United States, under the directorship of Stanford University psychology professor Robert Ornstein, whom Shah appointed as his deputy in the U.S.

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