We're beginning to get backed into a corner. It's something worth trying.

Any kind of ecological or human activity that requires snow or snow-free conditions are bound to be affected by that.

It's not to say this (rapid warming scenario) is something that will happen. But it's based on a plausible future.

The climate's warming more rapidly in summer than previously thought. The warming in Alaska is mostly due to an increase of the snow-free season. This is going to profoundly influence anything that is limited to the snow season.

Because of these feedbacks, there are lots of reasons to think that this warming will continue.

I think that (packed byline) is an increasing trend when you get real large-scale issues like this. No one person knows how to put it all together.

There's been a long-term interest in why it is that high latitude climate seems to be warming more rapidly than the rest of the world. Basically, I thought that maybe vegetation would be having a large influence, but the bottom line of that paper is that snowmelt swamps the vegetation.

This heat is added to the atmosphere, so the atmosphere in the north becomes warmer and is mixed with the global atmosphere.