Companies and industries should consider lowering the threshold for ear protection.

Our results demonstrate that chronic noise exposure is associated with a mildly to moderately increased risk of heart attack. The increase appears more closely associated with actual sound levels rather than with subjective annoyance. However, there were differences between men and women, and these need further investigation.

We seem to be looking at a threshold at which risk occurs and remains constant above this, and this appears to be around 60 decibels.

We should definitely be looking at something lower. The exact value is unclear, but somewhere between 65 decibels and 75 decibels. It is particularly important to focus on people with known cardiovascular disease to improve prevention for them, either by not exposing them chronically to heavy noise or by lowering the threshold for protective wear.