"Richard William Barber" FRSL Society of Antiquaries of London/FSA FRHistS (born 1941) is a United Kingdom/British historian who has published several books about medieval history and literature. His book, The Knight and Chivalry, about the interplay between history and literature, won the Somerset Maugham Award, a well-known British literary prize, in 1971. A similarly-themed 2004 book, The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief, was widely praised in the UK press, and received major reviews in The New York Times and The New Republic.

Barber has long specialised in King Arthur/Arthurian legend, beginning with the general survey, Arthur of Albion (1961). His other major interest is historical biography: he has published Henry Plantagenet (1964) and a biography of Edward, the Black Prince, Edward Prince of Wales and Aquitaine (1978). His most recent book is Edward III and the Triumph of England: The Battle of Crécy and the Order of the Garter (2013).

In 1969 Barber founded The Boydell Press, which later became Boydell & Brewer/Boydell & Brewer Ltd, a publisher in medieval studies, and acted as group managing director until 2009. In 1989, Boydell & Brewer Ltd, in association with the University of Rochester, started the University of Rochester Press in upstate New York.

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