"Marie Sk?odowska-Curie" was a Polish minority in France/Polish and naturalized-French

She was born "Maria Salomea Sk?odowska" in Warsaw, in what was then the Congress Poland/Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University/Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institute (Paris)/Curie Institutes in Paris and Curie Institute (Warsaw)/in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she established the first military field radiological centres.

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